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Since modern savages are in the same state in which all people were before, since the savages have the same amulets and idols as primitive people, nothing prevents us from accepting that the latter had the same structure of thoughts as our savages ... Their worldview is characterized by the word "animism" or "fetishism": all objects each have their own soul; she leaves during sleep or after death, but continues to be constantly near the living; it takes over in a healthy person and causes illness, and in order to drive it out, all sorts of tricks must be used.

So, illness comes from a soul that is lost and stuck in someone else's body; to cure the disease, the spirit must be expelled. This task is carried out by the primitive physician, using spells and giving various means. That is why in ancient times a doctor was at the same time a priest and entered into communion with the invisible world. Simultaneously with the priests, there were hunters and shepherds who, observing the surrounding nature, accidentally observed the healing properties of certain objects and applied their discoveries to the treatment of diseases.

Later, these observers turned into philosophers and natural scientists and took away the art of healing from the priests. The cruel manners of the Stone Age are proved by the many intravital injuries found on the skeletons. Most of the wounds are found on the head, depending on the nature of the battles of that time; from arrows wounds come across in various parts of the body. Bone fractures are common;

the outcome of their healing indicates that the prehistoric surgeon knew how to apply bandages well; between fractures there are those in which a satisfactory result is possible only with a good dressing. The first bandages were probably made of clay.

So, prehistoric surgery already had some methods of treatment. That very important operations were performed is proved by skeletons in which there are traces of intravital perforation (trepanation) on the skull. The condition of the skulls suggests that the patients lived long after such operations.